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Flora – Roman Goddess of Flowers and the Season of Spring

In the Roman Empire, several deities had associations with nature, animals, and plants. Flora was the Roman goddess of flowers and the season of Spring and was especially venerated during springtime. However, she remained a minor goddess in the Roman pantheon with few

Who Was Flora?

Flora goddess of spring

Flora was the deity of the flowering plants, fertility, spring, and blossoming. Although she was a minor figure compared to other goddesses of the Roman empire, she was important as a fertility goddess. Flora was responsible for the abundance of the crops in spring, so her worship strengthened as this season approached. Her name derives from the Latin floris, which means flower, and her Greek counterpart was the nymph, Chloris. The Sabine King Titus Tatius introduced Flora into the Roman pantheon.

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At the beginning of her myth, Flora had associations only with the flowering plants which bore fruit. As time went by, she became the goddess of all flowering plants, both ornamental and fruit-bearing ones. Flora was married to Favonius, the wind god, also known as Zephyr. In some accounts, she was also the goddess of youth. According to some myths, she was the handmaid of the goddess Ceres.

Flora and Zephyr
Flora and Zephyr, By William-Adolphe Bouguereau – Public Domain

Flora’s Role in Roman Mythology

Flora was a worshipped goddess for her role in the springtime. When it was time for the flowering crops to blossom, the Romans had different festivals and adorations for Flora. She received special prayers for the prosperity of fruits, harvest, fields, and flowers. Flora was most worshipped in April and May and had many festivals.

Flora played a central role with Juno in the birth of Mars. In this myth, Flora gave Juno a magical flower that would allow her to give birth to Mars without a father. Juno did this out of jealousy because Jupiter had given birth to Minerva without her. With this flower, Juno was able to conceive Mars alone.

Worship of Flora

Flora had two worship temples in Rome – one near the Circus Maximus, and the other on the Quirinal Hill. The temple near the Circus Maximus was in the vicinity of the temples and worship centers of other goddesses associated with fertility, like Ceres. The exact location of this temple has not been found. Some sources suggest that the temple on the Quirinal Hill was built where King Titus Tatius had one of the first altars for the goddess in Rome. 

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Apart from her foremost worship centers, Flora had a great festival known as Floralia. This festival took place between April 27 and May 3, and it celebrated the renewal of life in spring. People also celebrated flowers, harvest, and drinking during the Floralia.

Flora goddess
Flora goddess, By ArchaiOptix, CC BY-SA 4.0

Flora in Art

Flora appears in many artworks, such as musical compositions, paintings, and sculptures. There are several sculptures of the goddess in Spain, Italy, and even Poland.

One of her most best-known appearances is in The Awakening of Flora, a famous ballet of the 19th century. She also appears among the deities of Henry Purcell’s Nymph and Shepherds. In paintings, her most prominent depiction might be Primavera, a famous painting from Botticelli.

Mathilde Kschessinskaya as the goddess Flora (right) and Vera Trefilova as the god Cupid (left) in the original production of Le Réveil de Flore, 1894.
Mathilde Kschessinskaya as the goddess Flora (right) and Vera Trefilova as the god Cupid (left) in the original production of Le Réveil de Flore, 1894. Public domain

Flora was depicted wearing light clothing, like spring dresses, with flowers as a crown or with a bouquet in her hands. 

In Brief

Although Flora might not be the greatest goddess of Roman culture, she was a notable deity with an important role. Her name continues to be used in the word flora a term for vegetation of a specific environment.

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Dani Rhys
Dani Rhys

Dani Rhys has worked as a writer and editor for over 15 years. She holds a Masters degree in Linguistics and Education, and has also studied Political Science, Ancient History and Literature. She has a wide range of interests ranging from ancient cultures and mythology to Harry Potter and gardening. She works as the chief editor of Symbol Sage but also takes the time to write on topics that interest her.