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10 Religions in the Middle East You Have Never Heard Of

Religion has been an integral part of human civilization since the dawn of time. As societies evolved and interacted with each other, various religions emerged and spread across different regions of the world. The Middle East, in particular, is home to some of the world’s oldest and most well-known religions, such as Islam, Judaism, and Christianity.  

However, there are several lesser-known religions in the Middle East that are often overlooked and rarely discussed. In this article, we’ll explore some of these lesser-known religions and shed light on their beliefs, practices, and origins.  

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From the Yazidis of Iraq to the Druze of Lebanon and the Samaritans of Israel, we’ll delve into the fascinating world of religions in the Middle East that you may have never heard of. Join us on this journey of discovery as we explore the rich tapestry of religious diversity that exists in the Middle East. 

1. Druze 

druze men in khalwat prayer house
Druze clerics in Khalwat al-Bayada. Source.

The Druze religion, a secretive and mystical faith, finds its roots in the 11th century in Egypt and the Levant. With a unique blend of Abrahamic faiths, Gnosticism, and Greek philosophy, it offers a distinct spiritual path that has captivated its followers for centuries.  

Although monotheistic, the Druze faith diverges from mainstream religious doctrines, embracing reincarnation and esoteric knowledge as central tenets. 

Guarding the Secrets 

The Druze community gravitates around Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and Israel. The community safeguards the teachings of their faith with great diligence. The religion has a two-tiered structure that separates the religious elite, or uqqal, from the general followers, or juhhal. 

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The Druze ensure that only the most devout can access their sacred texts and esoteric knowledge. This air of mystery fuels outsiders’ curiosity and fascination about the Druze religion. 

Druze Customs and Traditions 

Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nebi Shueib festival
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nebi Shueib festival. Source.

Druze customs and traditions reflect the faith’s distinct identity and values. Observing strict dietary laws, modest dress codes, and endogamous marriages, the Druze demonstrate an unwavering commitment to their faith. Their hospitality and generosity, rooted in their spiritual beliefs, offer visitors a warm and welcoming environment. 

Navigating the Modern World: The Druze Today 

The modern world presents exclusive challenges for the Druze community in maintaining their faith and traditions. They showcase the resilience and vitality of their faith as they adapt and evolve, balancing integration with maintaining their religious identity. 

2. Mandaeism 

ginza rabba book bible of mandaeism
The Ginza Rabba, book bible of Mandaeism. Source.

Tracing its roots back to the 1st century CE in the Middle East, Mandaeism is an unusual and ancient Gnostic faith. 

The religion deviates notably from Christianity and Judaism, despite honoring John the Baptist as its chief prophet. The Mandaeans’ belief system assumes a divine being of light and a hateful material world creator in their dualistic worldview. 

Their sacred texts, written in Mandaic, a dialect of Aramaic, reveal a rich cosmology and intricate rituals. 

Rites of Purification 

Central to Mandaean practices are their purification rituals involving water, symbolizing the soul’s journey toward the realm of light. Mandaeans perform regular baptisms in flowing water, often in rivers, to cleanse themselves spiritually and maintain a connection with the divine. These ceremonies, led by a priest or “tarmida,” embody the essence of their faith and communal identity. 

The Mandaean Community 

a man reading an old mandaean manuscript
A priest’s old Mandaean manuscript. Source.

The Mandaean community, concentrated in Iraq and Iran, faces significant challenges in preserving their faith and traditions. Many have sought refuge in other countries, fleeing persecution and conflict, leading to a global diaspora.  

Despite these hardships, the Mandaeans remain steadfast in their commitment to their spiritual heritage, cherishing their unique beliefs and customs. 

Mandaeism and Modern Society 

As a small religion in the Middle East, Mandaeism captivates the imagination with its mystique and ancient roots. The faith offers valuable insights into the region’s diverse spiritual landscape and the resilience of its followers.

With a growing interest in Gnostic beliefs, Mandaeism continues to spark curiosity and fascination among scholars and spiritual seekers alike. 

3. Zoroastrianism 

zoroastrian persian shrine
Zoroastrian persian shrine. Source.

Zoroastrianism, one of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions, dates back to the 6th century BCE. Zoroaster (or Zarathustra) is the prophet whose teachings and the worship of Ahura Mazda are central to the ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism. 

The cosmic battle between good and evil is vital in this timeless faith. Zoroastrianism emphasizes the principles of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds while highlighting individual responsibility. 

Sacred Texts and Rituals 

The Avesta, Zoroastrianism’s sacred text, is a repository of religious knowledge, hymns, and liturgical instructions. Among its most revered sections is the Gathas, a collection of hymns attributed to Zoroaster himself. Rituals such as the Yasna, a daily offering ceremony, and preserving sacred fires in fire temples have defined Zoroastrian worship for millennia. 

A Community Bound by Faith 

Zoroaster glossy picture
Zoroaster, founder of Zoroastrianism. See this here.

Once a religion with a sizable influence in the Persian Empire, Zoroastrianism can now only count a few devotees, especially in Iran and India. 

Parsis have been crucial in maintaining their faith and principles as the Zoroastrian community of India. 

Zoroastrians maintain a robust cultural identity and community worldwide, continuing their longstanding traditions and cultural heritage through annual festivals like Nowruz. 

A Testament to Resilience 

Scholars, spiritual explorers, and enthusiasts of Middle Eastern religious history remain captivated by Zoroastrianism despite its ancient roots and decreasing numbers.

The faith emphasizes moral integrity, environmental stewardship, and social responsibility and aligns with contemporary values, ensuring its relevance in today’s world. 

The rich legacy of Zoroastrianism reveals a unique view of the Middle East’s diverse religious landscape. By uncovering the treasures of this obscure faith, we grow to appreciate the sustained influence of spirituality on human history and its capacity to offer direction to future generations. 

4. Yazidism 

Melek Taûs, the Peacock Angel
Melek Taûs, the Peacock Angel. Source.

Yazidism, an enigmatic and ancient religion, has its roots in the Mesopotamian region, with influences from Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam.

This unique faith centers around the worship of Melek Taus, the Peacock Angel, who serves as the chief archangel and mediator between humanity and the supreme deity, Xwede.  

Yazidis believe in the cyclical nature of creation, with the Peacock Angel playing a pivotal role in the redemption and renewal of the world. 

The Yazidi Holy Texts and Practices 

yazidi lalish pendant necklace
Lalish is the holiest temple of the Yazidis. See this here.

The Yazidi faith boasts two sacred texts, the Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Revelation) and the Mishefa Reş (Black Book), which contain hymns, prayers, and stories of the faith’s origins. Key rituals in Yazidism include the annual pilgrimage to the holy temple of Lalish in northern Iraq, where they participate in ceremonies and pay homage to the Peacock Angel.  

Other practices involve the veneration of sacred spaces, the maintenance of a caste system, and the observance of endogamous marriages. 

A Resilient Community 

Persecution and marginalization have followed the Yazidi community throughout history, primarily in Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. Preserving their faith, language, and cultural identity despite hardships, they have shown remarkable resilience. 

The dispersed Yazidi population worldwide has revived attention towards their culture and religious customs, guaranteeing the continuation of their ancestral traditions. 

5. Baha’i Faith 

baháʼí house of worship
Baháʼí house of worship. Source.

Highlighting the unity of humanity, the Baha’i Faith from Persia (modern-day Iran) has been a worldwide religion since the mid-1800s. 

Baha’u’llah recognized the validity of various religious beliefs while establishing faith and proclaiming the unity of God, religion, and humankind. It recognizes Judaism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity as some of the traditions. 

The Baha’i Faith encourages values including equal treatment for genders, prejudice removal, and the coexistence of science and religion. 

Guidance and Worship: Baha’i Holy Texts and Practices 

The extensive collection of texts left behind by Baha’u’llah, the founder of the Baha’i Faith, is considered sacred writings. 

The Most Holy Book, known as Kitáb-i-Aqdas details the religion’s principles, institutions, and laws. Baha’i traditions prioritize nurturing spiritual growth and building community via daily prayers, annual fasts, and observing nine holy days. 

A Flourishing Global Community: The Baha’i Faith Today 

baháʼu'lláh founder of baháʼí faith
Baháʼu’lláh founder of the Baháʼí Faith. Source.

The Baha’i Faith has a diverse following that stretches across borders of nationality, culture, and race. Many believers greatly recognize Baha’is for prioritizing societal and economic advancement and advocating interfaith talks and peacefulness. 

The Baha’i World Centre in Haifa, Israel, is where pilgrims and tourists worldwide visit for administrative and spiritual reasons. 

The Baha’i Faith Recognition 

With limited recognition in the Middle East, the Baha’i Faith gives a mesmerizing viewpoint on the spiritual scenery of the region. People with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds have found resonance with the universal principles and emphasis on humanity’s unity.  

Opening ourselves to the Baha’i Faith teaches us the potential of spirituality to unite and transform people’s lives worldwide. The world of the Baha’i Faith unravels the religious tapestry of the Middle East and showcases its interconnectedness.  

6. Samaritanism 

samaritan mezuzah on the wall
Samaritan mezuzah. Source.

Samaritanism is a small religious community in the Middle East. It traces its origins to ancient Israel and preserves a unique interpretation of the Israelite faith. Samaritans consider themselves the descendants of the ancient Israelites, maintaining their distinct lineage through strict endogamous practices.  

The faith recognizes only the Pentateuch—the first five books of the Hebrew Bible—as its sacred text, diverging from Judaism’s broader scriptural canon. 

The Samaritan Torah 

The Samaritan Torah, written in the ancient script, is the cornerstone of Samaritan religious life. This version of the Pentateuch differs from the Jewish Masoretic text in length and content, featuring over 6,000 variations. Samaritans believe that their Torah preserves the original text, and they maintain a steadfast commitment to its teachings and laws. 

A Living Legacy 

samaritans people marking passover
Samaritans marking passover on Mount Gerizim. Source.

Samaritan religious practices and festivals showcase the faith’s unique cultural heritage. Their most notable annual event is the Passover sacrifice, held on Mount Gerizim, which they regard as the holiest site in the world.  

Other significant rituals include the observance of the Sabbath, circumcision, and strict dietary laws, all of which highlight the community’s dedication to preserving their ancient customs. 

The Last Keepers of an Ancient Faith: Samaritanism Today 

The Samaritan community, numbering only a few hundred individuals, lives in the West Bank and Israel. Despite their dwindling numbers, Samaritans have successfully preserved their faith, language, and customs, offering a living link to the ancient Israelite tradition. The resilience and dedication of this small community have captured the fascination of scholars and spiritual seekers alike. 

7. Alawites 

the latakiya sanjak alawite state flag
The latakiya sanjak, alawite state flag. Source.

Emerging in the 9th century CE, the Alawite creed developed into a differentiated religious tradition as an esoteric derivation of Shia Islam. 

Alawites, whose base is in Syria, have integrated concepts from Christianity, Gnosticism, and ancient religions in the Middle East into their belief system. 

Alawites center their faith around Ali, the Prophet Muhammad’s cousin, and son-in-law, who they believe personifies divine truth. 

A Veil of Secrecy 

Only a few initiates within the community know about the secretive Alawite religious practices. This clandestine approach protects the faith’s sacred knowledge and maintains its identity. 

Prayer and fasting are among the Islamic that they follow, but they also practice distinctive customs, like honoring Christian holidays and saints. 

A Distinct Identity in the Middle East 

alawite falconer with syrian people
Alawite falconer during World War II. Source.

A distinct identity separates the Alawite community in the Middle East from others. Most of the believers gravitate around the coastal regions of Syria and Lebanon. 

The Alawites faced historical discrimination and persecution; hence they strived to defend their faith and cultural practices.  

The Alawite Faith in Focus 

Alawite beliefs, a lesser-known religious tradition, reveal the intricate spiritual fabric of the Middle East. The faith’s syncretic and secretive elements intrigue both scholars and spiritual adventurers. 

Diving into the Alawite faith’s concealed aspects helps us appreciate the Middle East’s diverse religious background. The journey expands our knowledge of the spiritual heritage of the region and highlights the richness and resilience of lesser-known faiths. 

8. Ismailism 

ambigram depicting muhammad and ali in one word
Ambigram depicting muhammad and ali in one word. Source.

Ismailism, a branch of Shia Islam, emerged as a distinct religious tradition. Adherents of Ismailism, known as Ismailis, believe in the spiritual leadership of the Ismaili Imams, who are the direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law, Ali, and his daughter, Fatima.  

Ismailis emphasize the esoteric interpretation of Islamic teachings, viewing their faith as a path to spiritual enlightenment. 

The Living Imam 

Central to Ismaili beliefs is the concept of the living Imam, who serves as the divinely appointed spiritual guide and interpreter of the faith. The current Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan, is the 49th hereditary Imam and is revered by Ismailis worldwide for his spiritual guidance and commitment to humanitarian and development efforts. 

Ismaili Practices 

Ismaili religious practices are a fusion of faith and intellect, emphasizing the importance of seeking knowledge and engaging in acts of service. Alongside prayer and fasting, Ismailis participate in religious gatherings known as Jamatkhanas, where they come together to pray, reflect, and engage in community activities. These gatherings serve as a central aspect of Ismaili life, fostering a sense of unity and spiritual growth. 

A Global Community 

The Ismaili community is diverse and cosmopolitan, with followers from various countries and cultural backgrounds. Despite their differences, Ismailis are committed to social justice, pluralism, and compassion, which are central to their faith. Through the work of the Aga Khan Development Network, Ismailis contribute to the betterment of societies worldwide, striving to improve the quality of life for all. 

9. Beliefs of the Shabakh People 

The belief of the Shabakh People is another smaller religious tradition in the Middle East. The Shabak people uphold this religious practice an ethnic minority residing around Mosul, Iraq. The faith emerged as a combination of elements from various religious traditions, including Shia Islam, Sufism, and Yarsanism. Shabakism has a syncretic nature, a reverence for divine manifestations, and an emphasis on mystical experiences. 

Hidden Knowledge 

Shabak religious practices are rooted in esotericism, with sacred knowledge passed down through an oral tradition. Shabakh religious practice teaches that divine truth comes through personal mystical experiences, often facilitated by spiritual guides known as Pirs.  

Shabak rituals typically involve the recitation of sacred hymns, called Qawls, which hold the keys to spiritual enlightenment, according to them. 

10. Coptic Christianity 

st. mark coptic orthodox church
St. mark coptic orthodox church. Source.

Coptic Christianity is rooted in Saint Mark, the Evangelist’s introduction of Christianity to Egypt in the first century CE. 

Coptic Christianity has exclusive theological beliefs because it belongs to the Oriental Orthodoxy branch and believes in the one divine-human nature of Jesus Christ, setting itself apart from other Christian denominations. 

Sacred Language and Liturgy 

The Coptic language, the final phase of ancient Egyptian, is significant in Coptic Christianity. 

Currently, the Coptic language serves primarily liturgical functions; nonetheless, it preserves a wealth of sacred texts and hymns that enable the faithful to experience a direct connection with the early Christian era. 

Coptic Christian liturgy is known for its beauty and richness, incorporating elaborate chanting, using icons, and celebrating ancient rituals. 

A Community Bound by Faith 

coptic monks
Coptic monks, between 1898 and 1914. Source.

Coptic Christians gravitate to Egypt, other parts of the Middle East, and beyond. They value their unique cultural and religious heritage and maintain close ties within their community. 

The Coptic community has stayed firm in its religious beliefs despite facing hardships, such as religious persecution and political instability. Monasticism contributes to preserving their spiritual practices. 

Wrapping Up 

The region’s spiritual landscape is incredibly diverse and rich. Various ways humans connect with the divine across millennia come from different beliefs, rituals, and customs, offering a captivating insight into the human spirit’s quest for meaning and purpose. 

Through resilience and dedication, the followers of these religions demonstrate the remarkable strength of faith to provide support, shape lives, and foster communities.

Their stories reveal multiple paths to spiritual growth and understanding that extend beyond geographical, cultural, and historical boundaries, increasing our awareness, tolerance, and respect.

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Nemanja Đukić
Nemanja Đukić

I am a writer and a teacher of rhetoric, international humanitarian law, and entrepreneurship. As a writer, I specialize in writing about history, politics, and finding quirky ways to elevate all the great selling points of a product/service. I obtained my bachelor's degree in International Relations at the University of Montenegro and completed my master' s studies at the Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary where I studied diplomacy. I believe studying diplomacy and politics sets you up for knowing how to craft a sentence, how to fill it with content and ensure that your audience understands the message.