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Polyphemus was a one-eyed giant belonging to the Cyclopes family in Greek mythology. He was a large and magnificent being, with an eye in the middle of his forehead. Polyphemus became the leader of the second-generation Cyclopes, due to his immense strength and intelligence. In some Greek myths, Polyphemus is represented as a savage monster, while in others, he’s characterized as a benevolent and witty being.
Let’s take a closer look at Polyphemus, the one-eyed legend.
Origins of Polyphemus
The myth of Polyphemus can be traced back to numerous cultures and traditions. One of the oldest versions of Polyphemus’ story originated in Georgia. In this narrative, a one-eyed giant held a group of men hostage, and they managed to free themselves by stabbing the captor with a wooden stake.
This account was later adapted and reimagined by the Greeks, as the myth of Polyphemus. According to the Greeks, a one-eyed giant, named Polyphemus was born to Poseidon and Thoosa. The giant attempted to hold Odysseus and his men captive but failed when the Trojan war hero stabbed him in the eye.
Despite the fact that there are several versions of the Polyphemus myth, the Greek tale has gained the most popularity and fame.
Polyphemus and Odysseus
The most popular incident of Polyphemus’ life was the confrontation with Odysseus, the Trojan war hero. Odysseus and his soldiers accidently strayed into the cave of Polyphemus, without knowing to whom it belonged. Not wanting to give up a wholesome meal, Polyphemus sealed his cave with a rock, trapping Odysseus and his soldiers inside.
Polyphemus satiated his hunger by eating a few men every day. The giant was only stalled, when the brave Odysseus handed him a strong cup of wine and got him drunk. Grateful for the gift, Polyphemus drank the spirit and promised a reward to the patron. But for this, Polyphemus had to know the brave soldier’s name. Not wanting to give away his true identity, the intelligent Odysseus’ stated that he was called “Nobody”. Polyphemus then promised that he would eat this “Nobody” at the very end.
As Polyphemus fell into a deep slumber, Odysseus quickly acted, driving a wooden stake into his single eye. Polyphemus struggled and screamed, that “Nobody” was hurting him, but the other giants were confused and didn’t understand him. So, they didn’t come to his aid.
After blinding the giant, Odysseus and his men escaped from the cave by clinging onto the underside of Polyphemus’ sheep. When Odysseus reached his ship, he proudly revealed his original name, but this proved to be a grave mistake. Polyphemus asked his father Poseidon to punish Odysseus and his men for what they had done to him. Poseidon obliged by sending rough winds and making the journey back to Ithaca fraught with difficulties.
As a result of his encounter with Polyphemus, Odysseus and his men would end up wandering for years on the seas trying to find their way back to Ithaca.
Polyphemus and Galatea
The story of Polyphemus and the sea nymph, Galatea, has been narrated by several poets and writers. While some writers describe their love as a success, others indicate that Polyphemus was rejected by Galatea.
Irrespective of the love’s success or failure, all these stories represent Polyphemus as an intelligent being, who uses his musical skills to woo the beautiful sea nymph. This depiction of Polyphemus is starkly different from earlier poets, for whom he was nothing more than a savage beast.
According to some narratives, Polyphemus’ love is reciprocated by Galatea, and they overcome many challenges to be together. Galatea gives birth to Polyphemus’ children – Galas, Celtus and Illyruis. The offspring of Polyphemus and Galatea are believed to be distant ancestors of the Celts.
Contemporary writers have added a new twist to the Polyphemus and Galatea love story. According to them, Galatea could never return Polyphemus’ love, as her heart belonged with another man, Acis. Polyphemus killed Acis out of jealousy and rage. Acis was then turned by Galatea into a spirit of the Sicilian river.
Although there are several contradictory narratives on the love between Polyphemus and Galatea, it can certainly be said that the giant was reimagined and reinterpreted in these stories.
Cultural Representations of Polyphemus
Polyphemus has been represented in diverse ways in sculptures, paintings, movies, and art. Some artists have shown him as a terrifying monster, and others, as a benevolent being.
Painter Guido Reni, visualized the violent side of Polyphemus, in his art piece Polyphemus. Contrarily, J. M. W. Turner depicted Polyphemus as a small and defeated figure, in his painting Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus, Ulysses being the Roman equivalent for Odysseus.
While paintings showed the emotional turmoil of Polyphemus, frescoes and murals dealt with a different aspect of his life. In a fresco in Pompeii, Polyphemus is depicted with a winged cupid, who hands him a love letter from Galatea. Additionally, in another fresco, Polyphemus and Galatea are shown as lovers, in a tight embrace.
There are also several movies and films which depict the confrontation between Polyphemus and Odysseus, such Ulysses and the Giant Polyphemus directed by Georges Méliès, and the film Ulysses, based on Homer’s epic.
Polyphemus Questions and Answers
- Who are Polyphemus’ parents? Polyphemus is the son of Poseidon and probably Thoosa.
- Who is Polyphemus’ consort? In some accounts, Polyphemus courts Galatea, a sea nymph.
- What is Polyphemus? Polyphemus is a man-eating one-eyed giant, one of the Cyclopes family.
The myth of Polyphemus is a popular story, gaining prominence after its appearance in Book 9 of Homer’s Odyssey. While the accounts of Polyphemus vary, in today’s world, he continues to be an inspiration for several modern writers and artists.